Monday, 18 June 2018

30 TOP Real Time Angular 4 Interview Questions and Answers pdf

30 TOP Angular 4 Interview Questions with answers for freshers and experienced Angular 4 job interview questions answers pdf.

Angular 4 Interview Questions and Answers

1. What Are Angular 4?

On 13 December 2016 Angular 4 was announced, skipping 3 to avoid confusion due to the misalignment of the router package’s version which was already distributed as v3.3.0. The final version was released on March 23, 2017. Angular 4 is backward compatible with Angular 2.
Angular version 4.3 is a minor release, meaning that it contains no breaking changes and that it is a drop-in replacement for 4.x.x.

2. Explain The Component Directory Structure Of Angular 4?

Here are the elements which are present in the component directory structure anf modules: –
Module.ts- in this, the angular module is declared. @NgModule decorator is used which initializes the different aspects of angular applications. AppComponent is also declared in it.
Components.ts- it simply defines the components in angular and this is the place where the app-root sector is also defined. A title attribute is also declared in the component.
Component.html- it is the template file of the application which represents the visual parts of our components.

3. What Is The Use Of Interceptors In Angular 4?

The Interceptors is a common used to set default headers for all responses.

4. What Happen When I Import The Same Module Twice In Angular 4?

No problem! We can import the same module twice but Angular does not like modules with circular references.
So do not let Module “X” import Module “Y” which already imports Module “X”.
When four modules all import Module “X”, Angular estimate Module “X” once, the first time face it and does not do again. Actually, the modules help us to organize an application into associative blocks of functionality.

5. How To Set Http Request Header In Angular 4 And Angular 2?

The HTTP Interceptors are used to Set Http Headers Request in Angular 4 using the import from “@angular/common/http”. The HTTP Interceptors are available in Angular 4.x versions.
The HTTP Interceptors are not supported in Angular 2. We are creating the Http Client Injectable class to achieve this. You can see the below examples for set http headers request with and without HTTP interceptors.

6. What Are The Differences Between Angular And Angular Js?

Angular was a ground-up rewrite of AngularJS and has many unique features.
Angular does not have a concept of “scope” or controllers; instead it uses a hierarchy of components as its main architectural concept
Angular has a different expression syntax, focusing on “[ ]” for property binding, and “( )” for event binding
Mobile development – desktop development is much easier when mobile performance issues are handled first
Modularity – much core functionality has moved to modules, producing a lighter, faster core
Modern browsers only – reducing the need for browser compatibility workarounds
Angular recommends the use of Microsoft’s Typescript language, which introduces the following features:
Class-based Object Oriented Programming
Static Typing
Typescript a superset of ECMAScript 6 (ES6), and is backwards compatible with ECMAScript 5 (i.e.: JavaScript).
Angular also includes the benefits of ES6:
For/Of loops
Python-style generators
Improved dependency injection– bindings make it possible for dependencies to be named
Dynamic loading
Asynchronous template compilation
Simpler Routing
Replacing controllers and $scope with components and directives – a component is a directive with a template.
Reactive programming support using RxJS.

7. What’s New In Angular 4? And What Are The Improvements In Angular 4?

Angular 4 contains some additional Enhancement and Improvement.
Consider the following enhancements:
Smaller & Faster Apps
View Engine Size Reduce
Animation Package
NgIf and ngFor Improvement
Ng If with Else
Use of AS keyword
HTTP Request Simplified
Apps Testing Simplified
Introduce Meta Tags
Added some Forms Validator Attributes
Added Compare Select Options
Enhancement in Router
Added Optional Parameter
Improvement Internationalization

8. Why Angular 4? What’s New In Angular 4?

It Makes work easier compared with angular 2 and other models.
Writing code is lots of cleaner and lesser.
It Improve the execution performance for Data binding and so on.
It has included Animations features.
In Angular 4, no need to apply observable methods because Angular analyses every page’s DOM and it is automatically modifies to page’s DOM.
It is also supported by Visual Studio, IntelliJ, And NET IDES and so on.
Migration is really very soft and cleaner.
And So On…
Angular 2 apps will work using Angular 4 without changing anything. Angular 4 offers lots-of enhancements i.e.
Smaller & Faster Apps
View Engine Size Reduce
Animation Package
NgIf and ngFor Improvement
Overriding Template
NgIf with Else
Use of AS keyword
HTTP Request Simplified
Apps Testing Simplified
Introduce Meta Tags
Added some Forms Validator Attributes
Added Compare Select Options
Enhancement in Router
Added Optional Parameter
Improvement Internationalization
Meaningful errors handling methodology

9. What Do I Have To Do To Trick The Browser Into Doing What I Want?

The impedance mismatch between dynamic applications and static documents is often solved with:
A library – a collection of functions which are useful when writing web apps. Your code is in charge and it calls into the library when it sees fit. E.g., jQuery.
Frameworks – a particular implementation of a web application, where your code fills in the details. The framework is in charge and it calls into your code when it needs something app specific.
E.g., durandal, ember, etc.
AngularJS takes another approach. It attempts to minimize the impedance mismatch between document centric HTML and what an application needs by creating new HTML constructs. AngularJS teaches the browser new syntax through a construct we call directives.
Examples include:
Data binding, as in {{}}.
DOM control structures for repeating, showing and hiding DOM fragments.
Support for forms and form validation.
Attaching new behavior to DOM elements, such as DOM event handling.
Grouping of HTML into reusable components.

10. What Is Angular?

Angular (commonly referred to as “Angular 2+” or “Angular 2“):
Is a TypeScript-based open-source front-end web application platform bed by the Angular Team at Google and by a community of individuals and corporations to address all of the parts of the developer’s workflow while building complex web application. Angular is a complete rewrite from the same team that built AngularJS.
Angular is a framework for building client applications in HTML and either JavaScript or a language like TypeScript that compiles to JavaScript. Angular combines declarative templates, dependency injection, end to end tooling, and integrated best practices to solve development challenges. Angular empowers developers to build applications that live on the web, mobile, or the desktop.

11. What Is The For Root Method?

The for Root is a static method and it’s very easy for developers to configure the modules and the best example is – RouterModule.for Root.
The Router Module also offers a for Child. It’s also a static method and use to configure the routes of lazy-loaded modules. The for Root and for Child are the traditional names for methods that configure services in root.

12. What Is The Difference Between `{'ngfor'}` And `{`ngforof`}` In Angular 2?

Angular 2 – ngFor vs. ngFor:
The [ngFor] is not a type safe.
The [NgForOf] is a type Safe.
The [NgFor] directive instantiates a template once per item from iterate.
The [ngFor] and [ngForOf] are actually the selectors of the [NgForOf] directive and it is not two distinct things.
The [ngFor] will be works like as collections.
The [ngForOf] will be works like as generics.

13. What Classes Should I Add To Module's Declarations?

We can add the declarable classes like components, directives and pipes in the module’s declarations list and we can add only – components, directives and pipes classes in the @NgModule.

14. What Classes Should I Not Add To Module's Declarations?

We do not declare – Module, Service, objects, strings, numbers, functions, entity models, configurations, business logic, and helper classes in the module’s declarations.

15. What Is Angular Js?

AngularJS is a structural framework for dynamic web apps. It lets you use HTML as your template language and lets you extend HTML syntax to express your application’s components clearly and succinctly. AngularJS data binding and dependency injection eliminate much of the code you would otherwise have to write. And it all happens within the browser, making it an ideal partner with any server technology.
AngularJS is what HTML would have been, had it been designed for applications. HTML is a great declarative language for static documents. It does not contain much in the way of creating applications, and as a result building web applications is an exercise in.

16. How To Get And Log An Error In Angular 4?

Two types of error:
If the backend returned an unsuccessful response like – 404, 500 and so on.
If something goes wrong in the client side like -network error etc.
In the both cases – We are using Http Error Response and return the useful information on what went wrong in this call!

17. How Are Jwts Used To Authenticate Angular 4 Applications?

In Annular, the following Steps are used to building authentication and authorization for RESTful APIs and applications. It might help you –
The users send their credentials to the server which is verified by the database credentials. If everything is verified successfully, the JWT is sent back to them.
The JWT is saved in the user’s browser in local storage or in a cookie and so on.
The presence of a JWT saved in the browser is used as an indicator that a user is currently logged in.
The expiry time of JWT is continually checked to maintain an authenticated state in the Angular applications.
The client side routes are protected and access by authenticated users only.
When user sends the XHR requests for APIs, the JWT gets sent an Authorization header using your cookies or Bearer.
When XHR requests coming on the server, before send back the responses it’s validated first with configured app’s secret keys. If everything is looking good then returns successfully responses other send the back to the bad request.
There are several open source libraries are available for angular which are helps with JWTs and has the ability to Decode the JWT, Authorization header to XHR requests and so on.

18. What Is Json Web Token?

JSON Web Token (JWT) is an open standard which used for securely transmitting information between parties as a JSON object.
The JWTs can be signed with –
HMAC algorithm
RSA algorithm

19. When Should You Use Json Web Tokens?

There are some scenarios where we can used JSON Web Tokens –
Information Exchange

20. What Is The Json Web Token Structure?

The JSON Web Tokens consist of three parts separated by dots (.), which are:

21. Explain Component Decorators In Angular 4?

A decorator is the core concept when developing an angular framework with version 2 and above. It may become a core language feature for JavaScript soon. In angular 4, decorators are used extensively and are also used to compile a code.
There are 4 different types of decorators:
Class decorators
Property decorators
Method decorators
Parameter decorators
A decorator is a function that is invoked with a prefix “@” symbol and is immediately followed by a class, parameter, method, or property. A decorator returns the same thing which was given as an input but in an augmented form.

22. Write The Cli Command To Generate A Component In Angular 4?

Components are just simple classes which are declared as components with the help of component decorators.
It becomes easy to create an application which already works, with the help of angular CLI commands. “Ng generate” is used to generate components, routes, services, and pipes. Simple test shells are also created with the help of this CLI command. For generating a component in angular4 with the help of CLI command.
you need to follow the following syntax-
ng generate component component name;
It generates the component and adds the component to module declarations.

23. What Are The Features Of Angular 4.3?

Features in Angular version 4.3 are:
Introducing Http Client, a smaller, easier to use, and more powerful library for making HTTP Requests.
New router life cycle events for Guards and Resolvers. Four new events: GuardsCheckStart, GuardsCheckEnd, ResolveStart, ResolveEnd join the existing set of life cycle event such as NavigationStart.
Conditionally disable.

24. Explain Ngfor Directive With An Example?

The ngFor directive instantiates a template for every element of the given iterator. The different local variables of the ngFor directive can be used in iterations. The ngFor directive can even be used with the HTML elements. It also performs various changes in DOM. Several exported values can be aliased to local variables with the help of ngFor directive. It allows us to build data presentation lists and tables in our HTML templates.
Here’s an example of ngFor directive with the help of HTML:
<tr *ngFor=”hero of heroes”>

25. Explain Property Binding Or One Way Binding In Angular Js?

Basically property binding means passing data from the component class and setting the value of a given element in the view. It is a one way binding in which the data is passed from component to the class. It allows us to control the element property values from component to class. Property binding in angular can take place by three ways:
Interpolation can be used to define a value, as long as the value being defined is a string.
Wrapping brackets around the element property and binding it to the component property is the most common type of property binding.
The third way is by adding “bind” before the element property.

26. Explain Ngif Directive With An Example?

The ngIf is a built-in template directive which is used to add or remove some parts of DOM. This addition or removal depends on the expression being true or false.
If the expression is evaluated to false, then the ngIf directive removes the HTML element. If the expression is evaluated to be true, then the element gets added to the DOM.
Syntax- *ngIf=”<condition>”
Example- <ul *ngFor=”let person of people”
*ngIf=”person.age < 30”>

27. Write The Difference Between Directive And Component In Angular Js?

In angular js, there are differences between the meta-data annotations. Some of the differences are:
A directive is used to add behavior to an existing element. Whereas, a component is used to create a component with attached behavior.
“@directive” is used to create a directive. Whereas, “@component” is used to create a component.
A directive is used to attach different behaviors to an existing DOM element. Whereas, with the help of component, we can break our application into smaller components.
A directive is used to create reusable behavior. Whereas, a component is used to create reusable components.
A directive does not require a view. Whereas, a component needs a view via @view.

28. What Do You Understand By Isolated Unit Tests?

As the name implies, unit test is all about testing individual units of code. In order to answer some questions, isolating the unit of code under test is really important. When we do this, we are not forced into creating related pieces such as DOM elements for sorting. With the help of isolated unit tests, it becomes easier to implement everything. To simulate the requests, dependency injections are also provided. The individual sort function can be tested in isolation. And not only the sort function, any function can be tested in isolation.

29. What Is A Routing In Angular Js?

NgRoute module is used when you want to navigate through different pages of your application but you also want your application to be a single page application. This ngRoute module navigates through different pages of your application without reloading the entire application. The angular js route module should be included to make your application ready for routing. The ngRoute is added as a dependency in the application. The routing engine captures the specific url requested by the user and renders the view based on the defined routing rules.

30. What Do You Understand By Services With Reference To Angular Js?

Services in angular js are used to organize and share code across your application. These are the suitable objects which are wired together with the help of dependency injection. The angular js services are lazily instantiated. The service is only instantiated by angular js only when the application component depends on it. In angular js, new services can be made or can even be used in other built-in services. Over 30 built-in services are present in angular js.

Tuesday, 7 February 2017

45 TOP Airport Engineering Interview Questions and Answers pdf

Latest Airport Engineering - Civil Engineering Questions and Answers

Airport Engineering Objective type Questions and Answers List

Airport Engineering Interview Questions and Answers
1. As per ICAO recommendation, minimum width of safety area for instrumental runway should be

a) 78 m
b) 150 m
c) 300 m
d) 450 m
Ans: c

2. As per ICAO, for A, B, and C type of airports, maximum effective, transverse and longitudinal grades in percentage respectively are
a) 1.0, 1.5 and 1.5
b) 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0
c) 1.5, 1.5 and 2.0
d) 2.0, 2.0 and 2.0
Ans: a

3. As per ICAO recommendation, the rate of change of longitudinal gradient per 30 m length of vertical curve for A and B type of airports is limited to a maximum of
a) 0.1 %
b) 0.2%
c) 0.3 %
d) 0.4%
Ans: a

4. Assertion A : The ratio of arriving and departing aircrafts influences the airport
capacity: Reason R :Landing operation is generally given priority over the taking off operation.
Select your answer based on the coding system given below:
a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
b) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A
c) A is true but R is false.
d) A is false but R is true.
Ans: a

5. An airport has 4 gates. If the weighted average gate occupancy time is 30 minutes and gate utilisation factor is 0.5, then the capacity of the gate will be
a) 1 aircraft per hour
b) 2 aircrafts per hour
c) 4 aircrafts per hour
d) 16 aircrafts per hour
Ans: c

7. The capacity of parallel runway pattern depends upon
a) weather conditions and navigational aids available
b) lateral spacing between two runways and weather conditions
c) lateral spacing between two runways and navigational aids available
d) lateral spacing between two runways, weather conditions and navigational aids available.
Ans: d

8. The engine failure case for determining the basic runway length may require
a) only clearway
b) only stop way ,
c) either a clearway or a stopway
d) either a clearway or a stopway or both
Ans: d

9. The minimum width of clearway is
a) 50 m
b) 100 m
c) 150 m
d) 250 m
Ans: c

10. If the monthly mean of average daily temperature for the hottest month of the year is 25° C and the monthly mean of the maximum daily temperature of the same month of the year is 46° C, the airport reference temperature is
a) 32°C
b) 35.5°C
c) 48°C
d) 25°C
Ans: c

11. Consider the following statements regarding iCAO recommendation for correction to basic runway length
1. The basic runway length should be increased at the rate of 7 percent per 300 m rise in elevation above the mean sea level.
2. The basic runway length after having been corrected for elevation should be further increased at the rate of 1 percent for every 1°C rise in airport reference temperature above the standard atmospheric temperature at that elevation.
3. The runway length after having been corrected for elevation and temperature should be further increased at the rate of 20% for every 1 percent of effective gradient.
Of these statements
a) 1 and 2 are correct
b) 2 and 3 are correct
c) 1 and 3 are correct
d) 1,2 and 3 are correct
Ans: a

12. The total length of a runway is 1000 m. The elevation at distance 0,200 m, 400 m, 600 m, 800 m and 1000 m are 100.0 m, 99.2 m, 101.0 m, 101.8 m, 101.4 m and 101.0 m respectively. The effective gradient of runway will be.
a) 0.10%
b) 0.26%
c) 0.43 %
d) 0.65%
Ans: b

13. The length of runway under standard conditions is 2000 m. The elevation of airport site is 300 m. Its reference temperature is 33.05°C. If the runway is to be constructed with an effective gradient of 0.25 percent, the corrected runway length will be
a) 2500 m
b) 2600 m
c) 2700 m
d) 2800 m
Ans: c

14. As per ICAO, the minimum basic runway length for A and E type of airport will be
a) 1500 m and 600 m
b) 2100 m and 750 m
c) 1500 m and 750 m
d) 2100 m and 600 m
Ans: d

15. Zero fuel weight of an aircraft is:
a) equal to empty operating weight
b) equal to maximum landing weight
c) less than empty operating weight
d) equal to sum of empty operating weight and the maximum pay load.
Ans: d

17. The cruising speed of the aircraft is 500 kmph. If there is a head wind of 50 kmph, then the air speed and ground speed of the aircraft respectively will be
a) 450 kmph and 500 kmph
b) 500 kmph and 450 kmph
c) 450 kmph and 450 kmph
d) 500 kmph and 500 kmph
Ans: a

19. As per ICAO, for airports serving big aircrafts, the crosswind component should not exceed
a) 15 kmph
b) 25 kmph
c) 35 kmph
d) 45 kmph
Ans: c

20. Calm period is the percentage of time during which wind intensity is less than
a) 4.8 kmph
b) 6.4 kmph
c) 8.0 kmph
d) 9.6 kmph
Ans: b

21. For determining the basic runway.length, the landing case requires that aircraft should come to a stop within p % of the landing distance. The value of p is
a) 40 %
b) 50%
c) 60%
d) 75%
Ans: c

22. According to ICAO, all markings on the runways are
a) Yellow
b) White
c) Black
d) Red
Ans: b

23. Runway threshold is indicated by a series of parallel lines starting from a distance of
a) 3 m from runway end
b) 6 m from runway end
c) 10 m from runway end
d) 15m from runway end
Ans: b

24. The width and interval of transverse centre line bars along the extended centre line of runway, in approach lighting
system are
a) 3 m and 30 m
b) 4.2 m and 30 m
c) 4.2 m and 50 m
d) 3 m and 45 m
Ans: b

25. In Intrumental landing system, the middle markers are located
a) along the  extended  centre  line  of runway end
b) about  1  km. ahead of the runway threshold
c) at the runway threshold
d) about 7 km.  ahead of the runway threshold
Ans: b

26. The size of landing area for multiengined helicopters operating under 1FR conditions is
a) 22.5 m x 22.5 m
b) 30 m x 30 m
c) 22.5 m x 30 m
d) 60 mx 120 m
Ans: d

27. The centre to centre spacing of heliport lighting along the periphery of landing and take off area should be
a) 2.5 m
b) 5.0 m
c) 7.5 m
d) 10.0 m
Ans: c

28. The slope of the obstruction clearance line from the boundary of the heliport should be
a) 1:2
b) 1:5
c) 1:8
d) 1:40
Ans: c

29. Assertion  A  :  Airport capacity during IFR conditions is usually less than that during VFR conditions.
Reason R: During clear weather condition (VFR), the aircrafts on final approach to runway can be spaced closer during poor
visibility conditions.
Select your answer based on the coding system given below:
a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
c) A is true but R is false
d) A is false but R is true
Ans: a

30. Assertion A: The width of a taxiway is smaller than the runway width. Reason R:The speed of the aircraft on a taxiway is greater than that on runway. Select   your   answer   based   on   coding system given below
a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
c) A is true but R is false
d) A is false but R is true
Ans: c

31. For supersonic transport aircraft, the minimum turning radius of taxiway is
a) 60 m
b) 120 m
c) 180 m
d) 240 m
Ans: c

33. As per UK design criteria, if LCN of aircraft is between 1.25 to 1.5 times the LCN of pavement, then the number of
movements allowed are
a) Zero
b) 300
c) 3000
d) Unrestricted
Ans: b

34. Which of the following is an example of failure in flexible pavements ?
a) Alligator cracking
b) Mud pumping
c) Warping cracks
d) Shrinkage cracks
Ans: a

35. The main disadvantage of angle nose out parking configuration of aircraft is that the
a) aircraft rear loading door is far away from terminal building.
b) hot blast is directed  towards the terminal building
c) overall apron area required is more
d) all the above
Ans: b

36. Which of the following is used for servicing and repairs of the aircraft ?
a) Apron
b) Hanger
c) Terminal building
d) holding apron
Ans: b

37. The slope of the transitional surface for A, B and C type of runway shall be
a) 1:5
b) 1:7
c) 1:10
d) 1:12
Ans: b

38. The length of clear zone for none instrument runway of a small aircraft is
a) 150 m
b) 300 m
c) 600 m
d) 750 m
Ans: b

39. In approach areas of runways equipped with instrumental landing facilities any object within 4.5 km distance from runway end shall be considered as an obstruction if its height is more than
a) 20 m
b) 30 m
c) 45 m
d) 51 m
Ans: b

40. Maximum gross take-off weight of an aircraft is
a) equal   to   the   maximum   structural landing weight
b) less  than  the  maximum   structural landing weight
c) more than the maximum  structural landing weight
d) equal to the empty operating weight plus the payload
Ans: c

41. Consider the following statements: Wind rose diagram is used for the purposes of
1. runway orientation
2. estimating the runway capacity
3. geometric design of holding apron Of these statements
a) 1 and 2 are correct
b) 2 and 3 are correct
c) 1 and 3 are correct
d) 1 alone is correct
Ans: d

42. Which of the following factors are taken into account for estimating the runway length required for aircraft landing?
1. Normal maximum temperature
2. Airport elevation
3. Maximum landing weight
4. Effective runway gradient
Select the correct answer using the codes given below Codes:
a) 1,2,3 and 4
b) 1,3, and 4
c) 2 and 3
d) 1,2 and 4
Ans: d

43. In an airport, if 4 groups of 5 gates each located well-separated are considered for traffic and the future to present traffic ratio is 3, then the total requirement of future gates will be
a) 32
b) 36
c) 44
d) 68
Ans: b

44. Castor angle is defined as the angle
a) formed by the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and the direction of movement of the nose gear
b) between the direction of wind and the longitudinal axis of the runway
c) between the true speed of the aircraft and the crosswind component
d) between the horizontal and the fuselage axis
Ans: a

45. The runway length after correcting for elevation and temperature is 2845 m. If the effective gradient on runway is 0.5 percent then the revised runway length will be
a) 2845 m
b) 2910 m
c) 3030 m
d) 3130m
Ans: c

Sunday, 9 October 2016

100 TOP Latest Chemical Engineering Interview Questions and Answers pdf free download

Chemical Engineering Questions and Answers

1. What are some common causes of gas pipeline vibration 20 Carbon Steel line? 
Check / consider the following:
? The upper pressure range and /or the smaller pipe diameters prompts me to investigate the possibility that the gas is reaching critical flow somewhere downstream within the pipe. When a gas gets to critical flow, sonic booms (producing vibration) are expected. In fact, one of the main means by which the additional pressure in the pipe is lost.
? If the source is a compressor, look for surging.
? If the source is a tower, look for pressure cycling in the tower
? Look at critical flow through any control valve that may be in the line.
? Are there any vapors in the line, which can condense and produce two-phase flow? Two-phase flow can cause vibration.
In chemical plant design, if we suspect two-phase flow, we instruct the piping designers to provide special anchoring.

2. While there, are many tests available to detect leaks on vessels, is there a technology available to quantify the leak, or measure the flow through a leak? 
The RheoVac air in-leak monitor by Intek, Inc. in Westerville, OH is a viable meter that gives the actual air in-leakage flow rate. It also gives you exhauster capacity and a vacuum quality reading. If you want to find more information, you can view their web site below.

3. Is there any way to repair a valve that is passing leaking internally without taking our process offline? 
A 600 psig, 3" steam line is experiencing "passing" or internal leakage. If you order to replace the valve, the process would have to be taken offline. A temporary solution to the problem is sought to get the plant to their next scheduled shut down ANSWER Research on-stream leak sealing services. This problem is quite common. What they would do in this case is drill a hole into the bypass valve on the upstream side but not completely into the line. They would then tap the hole and install one of your injection fittings, which is like a small plug valve. They would then take a long 1/8" drill bit and drill through the open injection fitting and into the pressurized line. The drill bit is then removed and our injection equipment is then attached. Sealant (heavy fibers and grease) is pumped into the line and caught in the flow, which will bind up against the leaking seat on the bypass valve. If done properly, this technique can be both effective and safe.

4. When using a pumping loop to mix two miscible fluids in a tank, when can the content are considered well mixed? 
A rule of thumb is to turn the tank over three (3) times and then sample the tank for mixture properties. By "turn the tank over”, we mean to force the entire volume of the tank through the pump at least three times. More turnovers may be necessary, but three times is a good starting point.

5. What are some good uses of low-grade steam at 12 atm and 1920C? 
There are various traditional methods to employ waste steam in an operating plant:
1. You can generate electricity through a steam turbine-generator set. The electricity is usually put back in the line; this is the idea behind the "Co-Gen" concept used today in many USA plants. Steam turbines can effectively use saturated steam supply down to 75 - 100 psig. In special conditions, they have used down to 50 psig as a turbine steam supply. I have used steam as low as 100 psig.
2. You can pre-heat process streams that require pre-heating; this is done by applying heat exchangers.
3. You can employ the waste steam as a refrigeration source by employing it in vacuum jet ejectors and producing 50 of cooling water.
You have to consider these as viable options if you can identify the heating, cooling and energy conservation requirements. An economic analysis is required to identify the most attractive option. You usually utilize a Discounted Cash Flow analysis to base your decision and that means you must study each case as to savings generated. A fourth method might be that you can use the steam for environmental heating (if you live in a cold climate).

6. What is a good way to get started in doing a plant-wide steam consumption analysis? 
It is unclear as to whether or not you know the total steam consumption. If you do not, one way to get it is to take the nominal capacity of the boiler in terms of heat, i.e. the total rated Btu/hr. This is usually available either through the documentation you have for the boiler or even on the nameplate. You also must know the steam pressure you are producing. Using the steam tables, get the enthalpy of the steam and divide it into the nominal boiler capacity to get the total rate. I hope that you also know how much of the capacity you are using, 50%, 75% etc. Multiply this by the total lb/hr to get your rate. Another way to get the capacity is by using the amount of boiler feed water you are sending to the boiler and the known level of steam you are producing. Do not forget to include the blow down in your heat & mass balance. Getting the rate to each plant is more difficult if you are lacking in instrumentation. Use as much plant instrumentation as possible; flow meters, pressure and temperature indicators. If you do not have a meter in each header to each plant, then see if you have them in sections or to pieces of equipment using the steam. Another way is to measure the amount of condensate you are returning to the boiler. If you are dumping the condensate, you may be able to collect and measure the amount in a pail from each source. Another way is to use the process instrumentation and do some mass and energy balances around the steam users.

7. Are there any general rules for flushing slurry lines? 
Slurry lines should be flushed with a minimum fluid velocity of 10 ft/s and the total flushing liquid volume should equal 3-6 times the total piping volume.

8. How can you determine the proper pipe thickness for a slurry line? 
Design of slurry piping systems should follow ANSI/ASME B31.1 and B31.11 Codes. A simple equation for this calculation is as follows: t = (PD) / (2S) + C where: t = pipe wall thickness, in. P = maximum design pressure of the pipe, psig S = maximum allowable design stress, psig C = corrosion or erosion allowance, in.

9. What is the best way to handle bend or turns in slurry piping systems? 
Even long radius elbows should be avoided in slurry pipes and lines. They are often the site of severe erosion or solid/liquid separation. Only gentle pipe bends or sweeps should be used to turn a slurry line. Industrial experience has shown that a bend-radius-to-pipe-diameter ratio of 3-5 is recommended.

10. How can you prevent bridging in a dilute phase pneumatic conveying system? 
Manufacturers of these systems recommend bin agitation or blowing air into the top of the feeding bin. These methods can prevent fine particle from bridging near the rotators valve. Two types of particles that are especially prone to bridging include titanium dioxide and calcined- kaolin clay.

11. What is some common piping materials used to transport slurries?
When selecting a piping material to transport slurries, corrosion and erosion considerations must be accounted for. Some of the most popular piping materials include:
? Carbon Steel
? Stainless Steel
? High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
? Acrylonitrile butadiene stryene (ABS)
? Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC)
? Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP)
? Elastomer-lined carbon steel

12. What are some common problems associated with dilute phase pneumatic conveying?
Probably the most common problem encountered in dilute phase pneumatic conveying is the wearing of the rotary valve that serves as an air lock where the product is introduced into the system. If excess air is allowed to pass by the rotary valve, this can cause bridging of the material the flow can be slowed or stopped.

13. What are some common problems associated with dense phase pneumatic conveying?
Dense phase pneumatic conveying, typically experiences one common problem from system to system: plugging in the line due to a malfunctioning booster valve. Dense phase systems require these booster systems to introduce new, pressurized air. These boosters are nearly always accompanied by a check valve. If the check valve becomes stuck, the product is allowed to plug the line.

14. What is the most common carrier gas used in pneumatic conveying?
While many applications utilize air as a carrier gas, others are not suited for using air. For example, if the substance being conveyed reactions with moisture in the air or if there is a threat of dust explosions, nitrogen is likely choice.

15. What types of pneumatic conveying systems are typically used?
Essentially, there are two types of pneumatic conveying systems. In dilute phase systems, the solids are suspended in the carrier gas and transported to their destination. In dense phase systems, the solids-to-gas ratio is much higher. The gas in these systems acts more like a piston to push the product to its final destination. Dilute phase systems are more typical than dense phase systems because they can employ positive pressure displacement or a vaccum system. Dense phase conveying is useful if the product degrades easily (works at lower velocities) or is particularly abrasive.

16. What is pneumatic conveying?
Pneumatic conveying is a method of moving bulk solids from one place to another with the help of a carrier gas. A differential pressure is applied inside a conveying line. The flow always moves from a region of higher to lower pressure.

17. What is the practical particle size limit for pneumatic conveying?
As a rule, pneumatic conveying will work for particles up to 2 inches in diameter with a typical density. By "typical density”, we mean that a 2 inch particle of a polymer resin can be moved via pneumatic conveying, but a 2 inch lead ball would not.

18. What can cause bulk solids to stop flowing from a bin?
Causes of such problems can fall into one of two categories: Material strength or Bin Geometry: Factors that can affect material strength include. Moisture is especially with particles, which fuse together with moisture.

19. What is the most common cause of solid size segregation in bulk solid systems?
Many engineers usually point directly to the pneumatic conveying system as a source of such a problem. The truth is that in most cases, segregation occurs because of the differences in sizes of the articles. As a rule-of-thumb, if the size ratio extends outside of around 1:1.3, then there will most likely be segregation. This being said, one should inspect the equipment responsible for determining the particle size rather than the pneumatic conveying system if this problem is occurring. Reference: Richard Farnish, the Wolfson Centre for Bulk Solids Handling Technology

20. How can one determine the particle size distribution for a given bulk solid?
While there are high-tech methods of performing such an analysis (laser-diffraction and video imaging system are available), the simplest way is to use a sieve stack. For example, to analyze a particular solid, one would stack several different mesh sizes into a cylinder with the largest mesh opening on the top and progress down through the cylinder to finer mesh. The cylinder would contain a pan on the bottom. Before beginning, weight the test sample, each piece of mesh, and the pan. Then, the sample is loaded into the top of the test cylinder and the cylinder is exposed to a combination of movements (shaken) to allow the solids to pass through the appropriate mesh sizes.
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21. What is a "saltation velocity" and how is it used in designing pneumatic conveying systems?
The saltation velocity is defined as the actual gas velocity (in a horizontal pipe run) at which the particles of a homogeneous solid flow will start to fall out of the gas stream.
In designing, the saltation velocity is used as a basis for choosing the design gas velocity in a pneumatic conveying system. Usually, the saltation gas velocity is multiplied by a factor, which is dependent on the nature of the solids, to arrive at a design gas velocity.
For example, the saltation velocity factor for fine particles may be about 2.5 while the factor could be as high as five for course particles such as soybeans could.

22. What are some characteristics of bulk solids that can affect their ability to flow properly?
Four (4) main factors to consider include moisture content, temperature, particle size (and shape), and time at rest.
1) An increase in moisture content will generally make solids more "sticky". Some solids will absorb moisture from the air, which is why nitrogen is often used as a carrier gas (among other reasons).
2) For some solids, their ability to flow can be adversely impacted by temperature or even the length of time that the particles are exposed to a specific temperature. For example, soybean meal flows nicely at 90 °F but start to form large bridges at 100 °F.
3) Generally, the finer a bulk solid becomes, the more cohesive the particles. Round particles are generally easier to handle than "stringy" or oddly shaped particles.
As particles rest in a bin, they can compact together from their own weight. This can create strong bonds between the particles.
4) Often times, re-initiating flow can break these bonds and the solids will flow as normal, but this can depend on the load at given locations in the bin.

23. After conducting an internet search for ways to reduce energy costs, I found a recipe for whitewashing that is said to reflect sunlight. The recipe calls for 20 pounds hydrated lime to 5 gallons water to 1-quart polyvinyl acetate. What is a good source of polyvinyl acetate that I can buy at a local store?
Well your recipe sounds exciting. Finding your polyvinyl acetate should be easy. Go to your nearest department store and pick up a large container of plain white glue! The chief active ingredient in this glue is polyvinyl acetate. Good luck with your project!

24. We wanted to know how to impart various colors to copper wire by simply dipping them into various chemicals, formulations, etc. This copper wire is to be used by us for our hobby of making various art objects from copper wire.
Changing the color of copper by means of chemical reactions is a dangerous Endeavour that I really do not recommend. However, there is something you can do to get a green color, if fact if you are familiar with the Statue of Liberty here in America, this would explain why it is green. You see, the outside of the statue is coated with copper and being in New York City, it is subjected to acid rain. This causes the formation of another chemical that coats the copper and gives the statue its green color. The two acids that you can use are nitric acid (which works best) or sulfuric acid (which will probably require some gentle heating along with the acid). I am not sure if there were a good way to get nitric acid out of something you may have around the house, you would probably have to buy it.
Sulfuric acid can be obtained from car batteries (the liquid inside). You will want to boil the mixture (to concentrate it by evaporating the water), until you see white fumes (which are very dangerous). Then put your copper is while the acid is hot and leave it there until you get the color you would like. If you are going to do this, please do it outside or in a well ventilated area and make sure you have some baking soda handy is case you get some of the acid on your skin. If you are looking for a different color or more colors...

25. What is an effective means of removing silicon from aluminum?
Silicon is well known for its chemical inertness, (i.e. it tends not to react with many other chemicals). Depending on what type of silicon you are dealing with, this may or may not be easy to solve. If the silicon is from a lubricant, it is probably the graphitic form, which is soluble in a strong combination of nitric, and hydrofluoric acids, neither of which I would recommend for you to use...nor hydrofluoric acid is not easy to come by. If it is silicon from an acidic form (probably any other form other than a lubricant), you should try ammonia. In either case, leave your acetone at will NEVER work! UPDATE: An ammonia solution worked very well in this case

26. What does the catalystic converter on an automobile really do?
A catalytic converter is a device that uses a catalyst to convert three harmful compounds in automobile exhaust gas into harmless compounds. The three harmful compounds are:
? Hydrocarbons (in the form of unburned gasoline)
? Carbon monoxide (formed by the combustion of gasoline)
? Nitrogen oxides (created when the heat in the engine forces nitrogen in the air to combine with oxygen).
Carbon monoxide is a poison for any air-breathing animal. Nitrogen oxides lead to smog and acid rain, and hydrocarbons produce smog. In a catalytic converter, the catalyst (in the form of platinum and palladium) is coated onto a ceramic honeycomb or ceramic beads that are housed in a muffler-like package attached to the exhaust pipe. The catalyst helps to convert carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide. It converts the hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide and water. It also converts the nitrogen oxides back into nitrogen and oxygen.

27. What compounds are responsible for the odors that come from wastewater treatment plants?
Compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide can all contribute to this foul odor.

28. What is the average salary for chemical engineers?
AIChE just came out with the results of a ChE salary survey (See Chemical Engineering Progress, September 2000). To answer your question depends on years of service, the type of degree, the size of the company and the type of industry, i.e. Engineering, Design & Construction (E&C), Plant work, Self Employed as examples. To summarize briefly, median starting salary is about $50,000 per year. Median salary among all Chemical Engineers is about $77,200 and annual raises are averaging 4.4%. As far as job prospects that again depends in which area you are interested. In general, jobs are still looking good. However, be forewarned, Chemical Engineers no longer command the job security that we once had. In economic downturns, it can get nasty.

29. Who built the first production scale PLA (polylactic acid) facility?
The first production scale PLA (polylactic acid) facility was built by Cargill Dow in The Blair, Nebraska, and USA. The facility is designed to consume 40,000 bushels of corn per day and produce 300 million lb/year of PLA.

30. What is the largest application for surfactants?
About 60% of total surfactant market is composed of the detergent and cleaning products marketplace. These types of compounds are sold in large volumes at low prices.

31. How can you separate hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and oxygen?
This is easily done. Just expose hydrogen peroxide to air. The oxygen in the air will oxidize the hydrogen peroxide into its component gases. It happens far too slowly for industrial or most other purposes (an enzyme catalyst can be used to speed up the process). However, neither hydrogen nor oxygen is produced in this manner in industry. The enzyme catalyst is called "catalase".

32. What is the easiest way to extract hydrogen from water and the safest way to store it?
Electrolysis (which means splitting using electricity) of water is the method for producing hydrogen from water. The safest way to commercially store it would be to use a palladium "sponge", because palladium adsorbs several hundred times it's own volume in hydrogen. One would need to produce a compound with a very high surface area, which has a thin coating of palladium. This type of material is commonly used as a catalyst in chemical processes.

33. What is a solvent?
According to the US Solvent Council, "A solvent is a liquid which has the ability to dissolve, suspend, or extract other materials without chemical change to the material or solvent. Solvents make it possible to process, apply, clean, or separate materials.

34. What are the three classes of organic solvents?
Typically, organic solvents can be split up in the following classes: Oxygenated, Hydrocarbon, and Halogenated. Oxygenated solvents include alcohols, glycol ethers, ketones, esters, and glycol ether esters. Hydrocarbon solvents include aliphatics and aromatics. Halogenated solvents include those that are chlorinated primarily.

35. What is happening when paint dries?
During the manufacture of paint, solvents are added to make the paint thinner so that it can be applied to various surfaces. Once the paint is applied, the solvents evaporate and the resins and pigments that make up the paint for a thin, solid layer on the surface.

36. What is quicklime and what are the uses?
Quicklime (Calcium Oxide) is an efficient scavenger of moisture in its dehydrated state. It is also cheap, compared to orthe scavengers such as silica gel, drierite, oxazolidines, etc. It is commonly found in water sensitive paint formulations (such as polyurethanes and polyureas).

37. What are PCBs?
PCB is a commonly used acronym for "PolyChlorinated Biphenyls". These compounds are famous for the disposal problems that they pose to the chemical industry.

38. How can separation of chiral chemicals affect the chemical and/or pharmaceutical industries?
This enantiomers (left [S] or right [R] oriented) versions of the same compound can have very different properties; this development has been significant particularly in the pharmaceutical industry. For example, the drug Seldane is a racemic mixture of both S and R versions of the drug's molecules. Through chiral separation technology, Hoechst was able to bring the drug Allegra to market in only 3 years (far less time than is usually necessary). Hoechst was able to bypass toxicity testing because Allegra is a single chiral form of its molecule. By chiral separation, the most of the side effects of Seldane were avoided in Allegra.

39. Can asphalt be recycled to form a useful product?
Asphalt can be ground into small pieces and emulsified to form a 70% oil/30% water mixture. This fuel can be used to power boilers. It has a heating value of 6,600 kcal/kg and is said to be stable for about 6 months.

40. What is the easiest way to extract hydrogen from water and the safest way to store it?
Electrolysis (which means splitting using electricity) of water is the method for producing hydrogen from water. The safest way to commercially store it would be to use a palladium "sponge", because palladium adsorbs several hundred times it's own volume in hydrogen. One would need to produce a compound with a very high surface area, which has a thin coating of palladium. This type of material is commonly used as a catalyst in chemical processes.

41. What is a surfactant?
A surfactant is a chemical that reduces the surface tension of pure liquid or a mixture of liquids.

42. What is a good source of surfactant information on the internet?
Check out the Surfactant Virtual Library at the link below.

43. What is the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)?
The sultriness of the ambient environment is more than a comfort factor. For workers, soldiers and athletes, high levels of sultriness may result in heat stress that could very well be life threaten. To determine the actual degree of sultriness in a quantifiable manner, the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index is used. It includes the effects of humidity, air speed, air temperature and the radiant heating factor (from the sun). This index was developed by the U.S. Military in the 1950's and has become widely accepted for industrial temperature measurements to protect employees. It combines three temperature readings: the wet bulb temperature; the ordinary dry bulb temperature and a black bulb globe temperature. There are also instruments available, which measure WBGT index directly, combining the three factors and their appropriate weighting values.

44. How can metals be removed from aqueous waste streams?
Precipitation is widely used to remove metals from waste streams. The soluble heavy-metal salts can be converted to insoluble salts that will precipitate and can then be removed by clarification, filtration, or settling.

45. What are some common precipitating agents used to remove metals from aqueous waste streams?
Perhaps the most common agents used are:
1) Metal hydroxides
2) Lime or caustic soda
3) Metal sulfides
4) Alum or ferric salts
5) Phosphate or carbonate ions

46. What types of metals are typically removed via chemical precipitation?
Some of the more common metals or other substances removed via precipitation include:
1) Aluminum
2) Arsenic
3) Barium
4) Cadmium
5) Calcium
6) Trivalent chromium
7) Hexavelent chromium
8) Copper
9) Iron
10) Lead
11) Magnesium
12) Manganese
13) Mercury
14) Nickel
15) Selenium
16) Zinc

47. How can hexavalent chromium be removed from aqueous waste streams?
One option is to use ferrous sulfate to reduce the hexavalent chromium to a less toxic, trivalent chromium form that wills precipitate out of the solution. Trivalent chromium can then be reduced by sodium hydroxide.

48. How can arsenic be removed from aqueous waste streams?
Often times, ferric chloride is added to such a stream. The ferric chloride aids in the formation of floc to agglomerate fine arsenic particles that can then be removed by mechanical means.

49. How can I treat a waste stream containing both hexavalent chromium and arsenic?
Waste streams that contain these types of mixtures are often treated in two or more reducing tanks. Strong reducing agents such as sodium metabisulfite, sulfur dioxide, and sodium bisulfite are often used.

50. How many grams per liter would there be in a 0.35 N (Normality) Citric acid solution?
The normality of a solution is the number of gram-equivalent weights of the dissolved substance per liter of solution. The gram-equivalent weight of the dissolved substance is the molecular weight of the dissolved substance divided by the hydrogen equivalent of the dissolved substance. Citric acid has a molecular weight of 192.12 and it contains three hydrogen equivalents (i.e., three COOH groups). Thus, the gram equivalent weight of the citric acid dissolved in water is 192.12/3 = 64.04 grams. Therefore 0.35 Normal citric acid would have (0.35)(64.4) = 22.41 grams of citric acid per liter of solution.

51. What is an additive?
An additive is anything that is added to a process that is not a basic raw material. It is usually present in such small quantities that it does not interfere with final product quality. It is usually added to act as an enhancer or to prevent some unwanted reaction. For instance, anti-foam additives are added to columns, evaporators, reactors, etc. to prevent foaming. Inhibitors are added to Styrene systems to prevent polymerization. A well-known additive is a detergent added to motor oils and gasoline to keep your engine clean.

52. What chemical is used to expand air bags in such a short amount of time?
That chemical is sodium azide (NaN3) which is a solid propellant that can be electrically ignited to form nitrogen gas almost instantly.

53. What steps can be taken to avoid stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in steel vessels used for storing anhydrous ammonia?
The U.S. National Board of Pressure Vessel Inspectors recommends the following in one of their classic articles:
1. Pressure vessels should be fully stress relieved or fabricated with heads that are hot-formed or stress relieved.
2. Extreme care should be used to eliminate air from the ammonia systems; new vessels must be thoroughly purged to eliminate air contamination.
3. Ammonia should contain at least 0.2 percent water to inhibit SCC. Source: National Board of Pressure Vessel Inspectors

54. How can wet carbon dioxide be responsible for a corrosion problem in iron-containing metals?
Carbon dioxide reacts with water according to the following equation: CO2 + H2O --> HCO3- + H+ As the concentration of CO2 increases, so does the concentration of the H+ ion. This ion can then react with Fe in metals as follows: Fe + 2H+ --> 2H (atom) + Fe2+ As corrosion proceeds, the ferrous ions produced can react with the bicarbonate ions to form ferrous carbonate, which precipitates as a scale.

55. Is it possible to compare the resistance to chloride attack of several materials of construction?
The Pitting Resistance Equivalent Index (PRE) can be used for such a comparison if the chemical make-up of each material is known. The formula for the PRE is PRE = % Cr + (3.3 x % Mo) + (30 x % N).

56. Why is post-weld heat treatment (stress relieving) sometimes necessary for welded vessels?
During the welding process, the two metal pieces being joined are subject to extreme temperatures and can cause the crystalline structure of the metal to pass through various metallurgical phases. As a result, hardening (and embrittlement) of the metal can occur to varying degrees (usually dependent on carbon content). Heat treatment is designed to reduce the hardness in the heat-affected zone of the metals and increase ductility in these sections. Various pressure vessel codes contain the specifics regarding the procedures for post-weld heat treatment. Heat is usually held for one hour per inch of thickness of the metal. The temperature used is based on the "P-number" of the metals. P-numbers are assigned based on the chemical composition of the metals. Holding temperatures can range from 1100-1350 °F (593-732 °C).

57. I would like to know how to size a partial combustion reactor processing methane and oxygen, as a function of the flowrate and of the pressure.
In your case, you essentially have two reactions: CH4 + 3/2 O2 ---> CO + 2 H2O (incomplete combustion) CH4 + 2 O2 ---> CO2 + 2 H2O (complete combustion) each of these reactions has a specific rate at which it occurs. If you wanted to design a reactor properly, you would need to determine the conversion of methane in each of the above reactions. The upper limit of your flow rate is bound by the rate of reaction. If the flow rate is too high, the reaction simply will not take place (i.e. the flame will burn out). I am not sure that there is a simple relationship between pressure and flow rate in this case. The gases need to spend a certain amount of time in the reactor in order for the combustion to take place (residence time). Once you know the residence time, you could design a reactor for your specific flow rate.

58. What is the angle of repose and what are its applications in the chemical industry?
The dictionary defines "angle of repose" as "the inclination of a plane at which a body placed on the plane would remain at rest, or if in motion would roll or slide down with uniform velocity; the angle at which the various kinds of earth will stand when abandoned to them”. Applications to the chemical industry...think about the design of the conical section of a storage bin. The material would not fall out the bottom, as we may want. This concept is also important in the design of system designed to move bulk solids...for the same reasons.

59. How is waste heat boilers categorized?
Chemical plants -(hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfuric acid, sulfur recovery) Incineration plants-(fumes, chemicals, municipal solid waste) Refineries-(cat cracker, CO off gases) Cogeneration, combined cycle plants-(gas turbine, diesel engine exhaust) Furnaces, kilns-(exhaust gases) See a complete table at the link below.

60. How do you design a vapor-liquid separator or a flash drum?
The size of a vapor-liquid separator should be dictated by the anticipated flow rate of vapor and liquid from the vessel. The following sizing methodology is based on the assumption that those flow rates are known. Use a vertical pressure vessel with a length-to-diameter ratio of about 3 to 4, and size the vessel to provide about 5 minutes of liquid inventory between the normal liquid level and the bottom of the vessel (with the normal liquid level being at about the vessel's half-full level).
At the vapor outlet, provide a de-entraining mesh section within the vessel such that the vapor must pass through that mesh before it can leave the vessel. Depending upon how much liquid flow you expect, the liquid outlet line should probably have a level control valve.

61. How can viscosity affect the design of a mixer?
For Newtonian fluids, which will have a constant viscosity at all impeller speeds, most design correlations will perform satisfactorily for viscosities up to 5,000 cP. Above 5,000 cP, estimating errors from 20% to 50% can result in the sizing of the agitator.

62. What information is needed to specify a mixer?
1. Specific Gravity
2. Fluid Viscosity
3. Phase to be dispersed
4. Solid-liquid systems
The settling velocities of the 10, 50, and 90 percent weight fractions of the particle size distribution should be available. 5. For gas systems, the standard and actual flow rates will be needed.

63. Is there any way to slow coke formation in ethylene furnaces?
Westaim Corporation has a commercial process for applying a special coating to the tubes used in ethylene furnaces. Westaim claims that coke buildup is reduced to one-forth to one-tenth of the normal rate. The coating consists of a combination of metal, ceramic powder, and a polymer. Once the coating is applied, the tubes are then heat-treated and reacted with an unspecified gas. Welds cannot be coated with this process.

64. What are some typical applications for glass-lined reactors?
Glass-lined equipment gives superior protection to all mineral acids at all concentration and temperatures. One exception is hydrofluoric acid. They are also used is high-purity processes where cleanliness is very important. Using glass-lined equipment help eliminate the possibility of metal contamination. A third application is in polymerization. Metallic vessels sometimes tend to allow the polymer to stick to the walls of the vessels while glass-lined vessels have good anti-stick properties.

65. At what temperature is glass fused to steel in the making of glass-lined equipment?
The borosilicate glass is typically fused to carbon steel at a temperature of about 800 0C.

66. How are vessel lined with glass or how are they coated?
First, the glass mixture is smelted for form the proper recipe based on temperature and pressure requirements of the vessel. Then the glass is ground into tiny particles and suspended in a liquid medium called a slip. This mixture is then spayed onto the surface to be coated. The vessel is then heated to about 800 0C to bond the glass to the steel (usually carbon steel). The vessel is then slowly cooled.

67. Are there any general rules that should be considered when designing a slurry piping system?
The following are items to consider when designing a piping system that will transport slurries:
1) Whenever possible, piping should be designed to be self-draining
2) Manual draining should be installed to drain sections of the piping when self-draining is not possible
3) Blow-out or rod-out connections should be provided to clear lines in places where plugging is likely or could occur
4) Access flanges should be provided at T-connections
5) Manifolds should have flanged rather than capped connections to allow for easy access
6) Clean-out connections should be provided on BOTH sides of main line valves so that flushing can take place in either direction
7) Break flanges should be provided every 20 feet of horizontal pipe or after every two changes in direction

68. What is the method of determining maximum differential pressure during hydro testing of shell and tube heat exchangers?
Mr. Richard Lee of Plumlee International Consulting usually heat exchangers have two sets of test pressures per side, one for strength tests, and the other for "operating" or "leak" tests. The strength tests are set by the design code and if you have the original design data sheets for your equipment then the information should be shown on these. If you do not then you will have to do the calculations yourself, the exact method will depend upon which design code you use, the most common one being TEMA (which uses the ANSI/ASME pressure vessel code for reference in this area).

Most shell and tube exchangers are designed such that each side of the unit will withstand the full design pressure, with only atmospheric pressure on the other side. In order to save money, some larger units will have the tube-sheets especially designed to withstand only a much lower differential pressure (requiring both sides to be tested simultaneously). This important information should be shall quite clearly on the design sheets and on the vessel nameplate (assuming that either are available). If the only need is to check that a gasket has been properly installed then it can be permissible to perform a lower pressure test based on the operating pressure. The acceptability of this lower pressure test will often depend upon the consequences of a leak.

69. What is a good source of information for the design of pressure vessels?
Pressure Vessel Handbook Author = Eugene F. Megyesy Publisher = Pressure Vessel Handbook Publ., Inc. P.O. Box 35365 Tulsa, OK 74153 Page 18 tells you how to calculate a pressure vessel's wall thickness; page 176 tells how to calculate an API Std. 650 Storage tank wall thickness. The rest of the book is a goldmine for young engineers - especially CHE's involved in vessel design. It also gives all the information you require for supports, nozzles, head design, piping, ladders, platforms, etc.

70. How can I evaluate the thermal relief requirements for double block-in of 98% sulfuric acid?
API RP520 gives equations to calculate relief requirements. For thermal relief, a very simple formula requires the heat input and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the liquid. The heat input could be a problem. If you are concerned about sulfuric in a line that is part of a heat exchanger system, then the heat is simply the design capacity of the heat exchanger. If it were a pipeline in the sun, then you would have to calculate the amount of heat that the sun can put into the pipe. You can get the coefficient of thermal expansion from your supplier or any book on sulfuric. You can also calculate it by taking the specific gravity at two different temperatures and divide the SG difference by the temperature difference. Coefficient of expansion has the units of 1/0F. Now for the easy part, if you are at all concerned, just put in a 3/4" x 1" thermal relief valve and do not worry about doing any calculations. However, I do not believe sulfuric has any problems in pipelines unless it is a very long one and directly in the sun. In addition, I would make it a standard procedure to drain the line if it will sit dead headed for any significant period. Just a small bleed will be enough.

71. Are there flow velocity restrictions to avoid static charge build up in pipelines?
There is an Australian standard "AS1020 (1984) - Control of undesirable Static Electricity" In it, there is a table for flammable hydrocarbons as follows:
Pipe Size (mm) Max Velocity (m/s)
10 8
25 4.9
50 3.5
100 2.5
200 1.8
400 1.3
600+ 1.0
This is based on pure hydrocarbons, and there is a correction, which can be applied for fluids of different conductivity. Methanol has a higher polarity than hydrocarbons and hence is more conductive. The resistivity of diesel is 1013 ohm-m vs 108 for methanol. In addition to this, normal piping design guidelines should however be followed, such as appropriate earthing, and ensuring exit velocities into tanks of 1 m/s.

72. What are some guidelines for sizing a PSV for a fire scenario on a vessel in a refinery service?
Sizing a PSV on your vessel is a matter of calculating how much heat is inputted from the fire. API-520 uses Q = FA0.82 where Q is BTU/hr, F is the insulation factor (commonly taken as 1.0 but can be less than 1.0 if your insulation will remain effective during the fire and not be dislodged by fire hoses) and finally, A is the external area in ft2. The vapor load is then the total heat input from the fire divided by the liquid's latent heat (BTU/lb).
As a fluid approaches its critical pressure, the latent heat as it boils decreases so the relieving flow rate increases. At the critical point, the latent heat goes to 0. Some companies simply use a minimum 50 BTU/lb latent heat others look at de-pressuring equipment, etc. One point is the protection, or potential lack of it, provided by a PSV during a fire. The boiling liquid in the vessel from the fire helps keep the metal 'cool' so it retains its strength. Once the liquid is gone or the flame impinges on the wall not in contact with liquid, the metal can quickly reach a temperature where it has insufficient strength to withstand the internal pressure and you have a BLEVE. Not something, you want to be around. As an added point to the information above, if 50 Btu/lb is not your company’s minimum standard for latent heat, here is an alternative to calculate the latent heat:

73. How can one determine if a particular solid can be fluidized as in a fluidized bed?
Mr. Alex C. Hoffmann of the Stratingh Institute for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering states: "Whether a material can be fluidized at all is the question: if it is fine or sticky, the bed will be cohesive. It will then tend to form channels through which the aeration gas will escape rather than being dispersed through the interstices supporting the particles. In the other extreme: if the particles are too large and heavy the bed will not fluidize well either, but tend to be very turbulent and form a spout." He goes on to present classification of fluidization by Geldart by use of the chart shown below. On this chart, the x-axis is the average particle diameter and the y-axis is the bulk density of the bed.

74. How does a tank-blanketing valve operate?
Tank Blanketing Valves provide an effective means of preventing and controlling fires in flammable liquid storage tanks. Vapors cannot be ignited in the absence of an adequate supply of oxygen. In most instances, this oxygen is provided by air drawn into the tank from the atmosphere during tank emptying operations. Tank Blanketing Valves are installed with their inlet connected to a supply of pressurized inert gas (usually Nitrogen), and their outlet piped into the tank's vapor space. When the tank pressure drops below a predetermined level, the blanketing valve opens and allows a flow of inert gas into the vapor space. The blanketing valve reseals when pressure in the tank has returned to an acceptable level.

75. What is a common failure mechanism for above ground atmospheric storage tanks?
Tanks constructed prior to the 1950's are notorious for failing along the shell-to-bottom seam or on the side seam. The principle reason for this is that these tanks were constructed before there were established procedures and codes for such a tank (Ex/ API-650 "Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage"). One of the key features of these codes and procedures was to make sure that tanks were designed to fail along the shell-to-seam such that the liquid remained largely contained.

76. Are there any methods of preventing cracking of carbon steel welds in refining environments?
Where carbon steel is an appropriate material of construction, NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers) has issued the following standard: NACE RP0472, "Methods and controls to prevent in-service environmental cracking of carbon-steel weldments in corrosive petroleum refining environments”. For welds where hardness testing is required, RP0472 give the following guidelines:
A. Testing shall be taken with a portable Brinell hardness tester. Test technique guidelines are given in an appendix in the standard.
B. Testing shall be done on the process side whenever possible.
C. For vessel or tank butt welds, one test per 10 feet of seam with a minimum of one location per seam is required. One test shall be done on each nozzle flange-to-neck and nozzle neck-to-shell (or neck-to-head) weld.
D. A percentage of helping welds shall be tested (5 percent minimum is suggested).
E. Testing of fillet welds should be done when feasible (with the testing frequency similar to the butt welds). F. Each welding procedure used shall be tested.
G. Welds that exceed 200 Brinell shall be heat treated or removed.

77. What are some common problems associated with bellow expansion joints?
Bellow expansion joints have gained a reputation for being "weak" points in piping. Usually they are used to remove piping stresses from equipment or to allow for minor piping moments. If they are used properly, expansion joints can save equipment and/or equipment welds from stresses generated from piping forces. The two most common complaints about bellows are 1. They tend to build up dirt 2. They are "weak" point in piping (as noted earlier). To overcome these issues, manufacturers can began installing drains in the bellows to allow for the period purging of material. Additionally, bellow manufacturers have placed much emphasis on installation advice and showing their customers how to protect the bellow from unnecessary damage. One such method is the use of tie rods between the end flanges to avoid pressure thrust movements (beyond the bellow's design conditions) which are often the cause of bellow failures

78. What is a good method of analyzing powders for composition?
A method known as Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is often used for this purpose. FT-IR sends light beams of varying wavelength through the sample and the reflected light is analyzed by spectroscopy to find the absorption of each wavelength. The measured wavelengths are compared with a reference laser and the sample composition can be calculated. Analect Instruments Inc. specializes in FT-IR measurement.

79. What is a common source of error in determining the percent spent caustic in refinery applications?
In titrations, a common error made is that the technicians stop at the phenolphthalein endpoint (which is incorrect) rather than the methyl orange endpoint (which is correct). Stopping the titration too soon can cause the results to be grossly under-reported. Equation (1): 2NaOH + H2S -> Na2S + 2H20 Equation (2): Na2S + H2S -> 2NaSH Overall Equation: NaOH + H2S -> NaSH + H2O

80. What are some common methods for helium leak testing a vacuum system?
It is common to have a location in the suction line of the pump to detect the helium. Then, the helium source is passed over the flanges and other possible sources of leakage. This is done while monitoring the detector at the pump suction for detectable amount of helium. Alternatively, if your system can take pressure as well as vacuum you can try pressuring it up and looking for the leaks that way. As yet another alternative, you can install an IR unit to the suction of the pump and spray isopropyl alcohol on the flanges.

81. What is a good device to use for obtaining viscosity data for a non-Newtonian fluid?
Consider a rotational viscometer. It will measure the shear rate applied and the subsequent viscosity at the same time. You can also vary the temperature and time the stresses are applied for the truly "fun" non-Newtonian fluids. According to Cole-Parmer, "The rotational viscometer measures viscosity by determining the viscous resistance of the fluid. This measurement is obtained by immersing a spindle into the test fluid. The viscometer measures the additional torque required for the spindle to overcome viscous resistance and regain constant speed. This value is then converted to centipoises and displayed on the instrument's LCD readout." When testing a tomato sauce sample, the following results were observed: "A sample of tomato sauce was analyzed to determine the product's viscosity profile. The test was conducted at a temperature of 25°C. An up/down speed ramp was performed from 10 to 100 RPM, giving a viscosity range of from 3,800 to 632.5 cP, over shear rates from 3.4 to 34.0 reciprocal seconds. The test data obtained for tomato sauce shows that this product exhibits a marked shear thinning viscosity profile over the test conditions.

82. What is screen analysis and what are its applications in the chemical industry?
A screen analysis is the one passes solids through various sizes of screen mesh. This is done to get a particle size distribution. A group of solids is first passes through fine mesh and the amount that passes is noted, then a little larger mesh and the amount recorded and so on.

83. What is a quick way to calculate frictional pressure drops in carbon steel pipe?
The relationship shown below is valid for Reynolds numbers in the range of 2100 to 106. For smooth tubes, a constant of 23,000 should be used rather than 20,000.

84. How can you estimate a gas flow based on two pressure measurements?
You can use the Weymouth equation to estimate the gas flow. Below is the equation. The compressibility should be evaluated at Pavg shown below. Nomenclature is as follows: Q = flow rate, Million Cubic Feet per Day (MCFD) Tb = base Temperature, degrees Rankin Pb = base pressure, psia G = gas specific gravity (reference air=1) L = line length, miles T = gas temperature, degrees Rankin Z = gas compressibility factor D = pipe inside diameter, in. E = Efficiency factor E=1 for new pipes with no bends E=0.95 for pipe less than a year old E=0.92 for average operating conditions E=0.85 for unfavorable operating conditions

85. What are the affinity laws associated with dynamics pumps?
1. Capacity varies directly with impeller diameter and speed. 2. Head varies directly with the square of impeller diameter and speed. 3. Horsepower varies directly with the cube of impeller diameter and speed.

86. How can you quickly estimate the horsepower of a pump?
Try this handy little equation: Horsepower = (GPM)(Delivered Pressure) / 1715 (Efficiency) GPM = Gallon per minute of flow Delivered pressure = Discharge minus suction pressure, psi Efficiency = Fractional pump efficiency

87. How can you estimate the efficiency of a pump?
The following method, developed by M.W. Kellogg, gives results within 3.5% of most manufacturers’ curves. Eff % = 80-0.2855H+3.78x10-4HF-2.23x10-7HF2+5.39x10-4H2-6.39x10-7H2F+4.0x10-10H2F2 H = Developed head, ft F = Flow in GPM (gallons per minute) Applicable for heads from 50 to 300 ft and flows from 100 to 1000 GPM

88. What is the significance of the minimum flow required by a pump?
The minimum flow that a pump requires describes the flow below which the pump will experience what is called "shutoff". At shutoff, most of the pump's horsepower or work is converted to heat that can vaporize the fluid and cause cavitations that will severely damage the pump. The minimum flow of a pump is particularly important in the design of boiler feed pumps where the fluid is near its boiling point.

89. How can you determine the largest impeller that a pump can handle?
The motor amperage should be measured in the field with the pump discharge valve wide open. Subtract about 10% from the pumps maximum rated amperage. Then the maximum impeller size can be determined from A2 = A1 (d2/d1)3 A2 = Maximum amperage minus 10% A1 = Current operating amperage d2 = Maximum impeller diameter d1 = Current impeller diameter

90. What is a good estimate for the absolute roughness for epoxy lined carbon steel pipe?
The specific roughness for welded, seamless steel is .0002 ft. PVC has a specific roughness of 0.000005 ft. You may also want to consider using the Hazen-Williams formula, which lists a coefficient of 130-140 for cement-lined cast iron piping. You need to decide which is more conservative for your application.

91. What types of valves are recommended for slurry services?
Typically straight-through diaphragm, clamp or pinch, and full-port ball valves with cavity fillers are the preferred type of slurry valves. In general, gate, needle, and globe valves are NOT recommended for slurry services.

92. What is the best way to configure a bypass line in slurry services?
Bypass lines should be placed ABOVE the control valve so that the slurry cannot settle out and build up in the line during bypass.

93. Should slurry pipes be sloped during horizontal runs?
If possible, slurry lines should indeed be sloped. Generally, to slope the pipes 1/2 inches for every 10 feet of pipe is recommended.

94. What type of flow measurement devices is best for slurries?
Any device that restricts the flow to perform measurements is not recommended for slurries. These devices include orifices and dampeners. These devices can lead to liquid/solid separation and they can lead to excessive erosion. Instead, measuring devices that do not restrict the flow should be used. One example of such a device is the magnetic flow meter.

95. What type of pump may be appropriate for a liquid near saturation, a low flow rate, and very limited NPSHa (net positive suction head available)?
This application is nearly perfect for a turbine regenerative type of pump. Factors that immediately identify your application and pump type are the small flowrate, low NPSHa, and high temperature. The regenerative turbine was specifically developed for these conditions and one more: high discharge pressures. The high discharge pressure may not be necessary, but the regenerative turbine can give you an NPSHr of 0.5 feet with ease. They are particularly suited to saturated boiler feed water and your application is similar, albeit not in pressure. You can visit the site below to learn more about these types of pumps.

96. How can one estimate how the friction factor changes in heat exchanger tubes with a change in temperature?
Seider and Tate recommended the following for determine friction factors inside heat exchanger tubes with varying temperatures: First, determine the average, bulk mean temperature in the processing line. For example if the fluid enters the line at 300 °C and leaves at 280 °C, use 290 °C to determine the physical properties and friction factors. As for corrections: Laminar Flow If the liquid is cooling, the friction factor obtained from the mean temperature and bulk properties is divided by (bulk viscosity/wall viscosity)0.23 and for heating, it's divided by (bulk viscosity/wall viscosity)0.38. Here, the bulk and wall viscosity are determined at the mean temperature over the length of the line. Turbulent Flow If the liquid is cooling, the friction factor obtained from the mean temperature and bulk properties is divided by (bulk viscosity/wall viscosity)0.11 and for heating, it's divided by (bulk viscosity/wall viscosity)0.17.

97. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using gear pumps?
Gear pumps are a type of positive displacement pump that are appropriate for pumping relatively high pressures and low capacities. Advantages include the ability to handle a wide range of viscosities, less sensitivity to cavitation (than centrifugal style pumps), relatively simple to maintain and rebuild. Disadvantages can include a limited array of materials of construction due to tight tolerances required, high shear placed on the liquid, and the fluid must be free of abrasives. Also, note that gear pumps must be controlled via the motor speed. Throttling the discharge is not an acceptable means of control.

98. Under what circumstances are vortex flowmeters the most accurate?
The accuracy of vortex flowmeters can be within 1% so long as they're being operating within their recommended flow range, have a steady stream, and you have 10 pipe diameters of straight pipe behind the in front of the flowmeters. Outside of these parameters, these flowmeters are not accurate.

99. What are some factors to consider when trying choosing between a dry screw compressor and an oil-flooded screw compressor?
Screw compressors utilize a pair of "meshing" helical screws to compress gases. These types of compressors a generally appropriate for a flow range of 85-170 m3/h (3000-6000 acfm) and discharge pressures in the range of 2070-2760 kPa (300-400 psig). As the name implies, dry screw compressor run dry while oil-flooded compressors use oil for bearing lubrication as well as to seal the compression chamber. The oil also carries the heat from the compression away from the compressor. This heat is typically rejected to an external heat exchanger. Some factors to consider when choosing between the two types of screw compressors include

Is the process gas compatible with the oil? If the answer is no, use dry type Does the process gas have to be oil free? If the answer is yes, use dry type is efficiency the top priority. If the answer is yes, use oil-flooded type Are you looking to minimize shaft-seal leakage. If the answer is yes, use oil-flooded type Are there any liquids in the incoming gas. If the answer is yes, use oil-flooded type Does the gas contain small particulate matter? If the answer is yes, use dry type these and other guidelines can help in choosing between the two types of screw compressors.

100. Is there a handy way to determine if a horizontal pipe is running full if the flow rate is known?
If Q/d2.5 is greater than or equal to about 10.2, then the pipe is said to full. In this case, Q is in GPM (U.S. Imperial gallons per minute) and d is in inches.